An interesting article demonstrating the evolving applications of Li-fi.
Prof. Hass first demonstrated Li-fi technology during a TED talk in 2011 that you can watch here http://www.ted.com/talks/harald_haas_wireless_data_from_every_light_bulb?language=en . He touched on the widespread potential applications for the fast, efficient & secure data transfer technology, all achieved within the visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (400 to 800THz).
Li-fi converts data into binary light signals, modulating the intensity of an LED light source, undetectable by the human eye. A photo-sensitive detector receives and demodulates the signal back into an electronic form. Transfer speeds in excess of 220Gbps and distances up to a mile have been reported under lab and test conditions.
After reading the article my focus, however, will not be on the US or the Russians, but the French, following the completion of the 3,500sqm Sogeprom office & Paris Metro installations, both using high-bandwidth, bi-directional, Li-fi to provide internet access.
Li-fi is to be adopted by the US Navy for ship-to-ship communication, in a move that harkens back to the days of signal lights, which were used in maritime warfare hundreds of years ago. Ships will be able to transmit data with a beam of light from a common LED. The light is then received by a photodiode, which is able to decode the information. The technology, when used at sea, is in many ways similar to old navy equipment such as the Aldis lamp, which has been used to send Morse code messages via flashing light for over a hundred years.